The European Journal of Humour Research <p>The EJHR is an open-access, academic journal published by <a title="Tertium" href=""><strong>Cracow Tertium Society for the Promotion of Language Studies</strong> </a>and endorsed by <a href="">The International Society for Humor Studies (ISHS)</a>. The EJHR publishes commissioned guest articles, peer-reviewed research articles and commentaries, book reviews and research notes, which are meant to track research projects from the start to the end of the project and provide details on rationale, methodology and project results and outcomes. The journal has a special focus on supporting PhD students and early career researchers by providing them with a forum within which to disseminate their work alongside established scholars and practitioners.<br />The EJHR welcomes submissions that combine research and practice or relevant applications, as well as empirical studies detailing their usefulness to the topic of humour. All papers received undergo a double-blind, peer-review process. In addition to scholars within humor research, we invite those as yet unfamiliar with (or wary of) humor research to enter the discussion. The elaboration of joint methodological frameworks is strongly encouraged. For further details or inquiries you may contact the Editors.<br />No charges are applied either for submitting, reviewing or processing articles for publication.<br />The journal is now listed in important international <a href="">indexing bases</a> including <a href="">Scopus</a> and Scimago ranking :</p> <p><a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0" /></a> </p> <p>This publication is supported by the <a href="">CEES</a> and ELM <a href="">Scholarly Press.</a></p> <p><img src="" alt="" width="300" height="118" /> <img src="" alt="" width="300" height="135" /></p> Cracow Tertium Society for the Promotion of Language Studies en-US The European Journal of Humour Research 2307-700X All authors agree to an Attribution Non-Commercial Non Derivative Creative Commons License on their work. Lubricating culture awareness and critical thinking through humour <p><em>There is an ample evidence supporting the benefits of instructional humour, among which increased attention and interest, information retention and learning speed, more productive learning environment, a more positive image of the instructor, more efficient acquisition of linguistic and cultural competencies, an increased conversational involvement, enhanced cultural awareness and more stimulated critical thinking. However, most of the research findings rely on what is termed appropriate humor such as puns, jokes, anecdotes and alike, while potentially offensive humour that relates to sexual, ethnic, religious, political identity is generally labeled inappropriate and advised to be avoided in the classroom environment. It is in this particular context that this study seeks to test the potential of such humour, sexual and ethnic in particular, to act as a tool of increasing cultural awareness and stimulate critical thinking among university students. To do so, the study relies on an experimental class design combining few in-class and extracurricular activities created by using sexual and ethnic humour samples. </em></p> Aleksandar Takovski Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 1 19 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.535 A pragmatic analysis of humour strategies and functions in 'Jenifa's Diary' and 'Professor JohnBull' <p><em>Studies on humour in Nigeria have been extensively carried out from the perspectives of stand-up comedy and computer-mediated communication. There is a dearth of scholarly enquiries on humour in situation comedies (sitcoms). This paper investigates humour in the interactions of characters in </em>Jenifa’s Diary<em> and </em>Professor JohnBull,<em> with a view to accounting for the manifestations of humour, the humour strategies deployed and the functions that the humorous utterances serve in the sitcoms. The work is situated in Culpeper’s Impoliteness Theory. Eight excerpts from the sitcoms were subjected to pragmatic analysis. Two discourse functions of amusing and castigating are discovered in the data. The former serves the function of facilitating discourse and changing presumed power and status, while the latter serves the function of maintaining one’s own space and autonomy, and demanding respect. Allusion, parody, retort, tease, banter and putdown are the humour techniques employed in the sitcoms. The study corroborates the claim of earlier studies that humour in every sphere of language use serves certain functions beyond the interactional need to create amusement.</em></p> Adesina B. Sunday Ganiu A. Bamgbose Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 20 34 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.564 Ephemeral mimetics: memes, an X-ray of Covid-19 <p><em>The Covid-19 pandemic has prompted a crisis with consequences for public health, but also with economic, social and cultural implications that have affected all layers of society to a greater or lesser extent. Communication has been impacted by the immediacy and virality of messages and misinformation has galloped across social platforms. Against that backdrop, memes have emerged as a powerful means to channel citizen sentiment. A study of these digital objects is essential to understanding social network-based communication during the pandemic. The qualitative research reported here analyses the role of memes in communication on Covid-19, studies their development and defends their status as one of this generation’s cultural artefacts that, as such, merits preservation. Meme evolution is studied using Kübler-Ross’s stages of grief, which has been applied in a number of contexts involving psychological change. Studying memes in those terms both brings information on the evolution of citizens’ concerns to light and proves useful to sound out social media communication around the pandemic media. The challenges to be faced in meme preservation are defined, along with the ways in which heritage institutions should ensure the conservation of these cultural objects, which mirror early twenty-first century communication and world views and in this case provide specific insight into one of the most significant historic circumstances of recent decades.</em></p> Sara Martínez Cardama Fátima García-López Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 35 57 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.558 The humorous rewriting of Orwell’s '1984' <p><em>This commentary piece offers some preliminary thoughts concerning the Greek memes produced since COVID-19 disease arrived at Greece at the end of February 2020, through identifying an analogy between the sociopolitical conditions in Greece-under-lockdown and Orwell’s Oceania in his 1984 novel. It is specifically argued that such texts constitute political humour commenting on the abrupt, yet pervasive changes attested due to state measures against the spread of COVID-19 disease. To this end, memes collected from the social media are discussed and interpreted in comparison with extracts from Orwell’s novel to point to striking similarities between the 1984 sociopolitical context and the Greek one. It is, however, suggested that there is a significant difference between the two contexts: in Orwell’s dystopia, humour seems to have no place at all; on the contrary, humour thrived in Greece-under-lockdown, especially among participants in the social media, in the form of rapidly created and disseminated memes. Memory (a central notion in Orwell’s novel) emerges as a crucial factor for the production of such humour in contemporary Greece and for its absence from Orwell’s Oceania.</em></p> Villy Tsakona Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 58 73 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.581 Both artistic and comic <p><em>This study examines Louis Cazamian’s considerations on the nature of humour, which were influenced by Bergson’s theory of the comic as a contrast between life and automatism and Bergson’s idea of humour as a specific type of comic linguistic transposition. In this context, the paper draws attention to the critical function of humour in Cazamian’s understanding based on his embracing of Bergson’s conception of laughter as a critique of the automation of life. However, Cazamian’s speculating diverges from Bergson’s thoughts on humour and leads to the creation of an elaborated theory. Cazamian states that humour has an artistic status and attributes characteristics to it that Bergson attributes to works of art. In contrast to Bergson, who emphasises the distinction between art and the comic, Cazamian deems humour’s critical aspect to accord with its artistic status. While humour is attributed artistic status because it suggests the multifaceted or elusive character of reality, humour’s comic character entails ridiculing the inability or unwillingness to respect that reality has a comic character.</em></p> Miloš Ševčík Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 74 90 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.576 ‘She is like a Yakshini’ <p><em>This paper looks at the importance of aggressive humour in the discursive construction of a ‘Yakshini’ character in a popular Chinese sitcom</em><em>, Ipartment</em><em>. The exaggerated, aggressive nature of such a stereotypical character undermines traditional cultural norms of Chinese femininity. Such characterisation of a heroine through aggressive humour in a popular sitcom reflects the fact that empowering women has become (or is becoming) more acceptable in contemporary China. </em></p> Ying Cao Chong Han Xiangdong Liu Adrian Hale Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 110 130 10.7592/EJHR.2021.9.4.585 Before the political cartoonist, there was the Vidusaka <p><em>Political cartooning was one among the many cultural products that colonial rule introduced in India. This British legacy has been used to produce narratives about the nature and history of Indian cartooning. However, these narratives have, invariably, overlooked the distinctly Indian cultural ethos as well as the Indian satirical tradition. The paper proposes an alternative model by positing that in the Indian satirical tradition, the Vidusaka – the comic figure in Sanskrit drama - has been an antecedent to the political cartoonist in terms of the social and political role as well as the nature and purpose of the humour. The paper also locates the principles of caricaturing in precolonial Indian visual arts, and presents the early vernacular cartoons as the point of convergence between the local satirical tradition and the western format of the political cartoon which laid the foundation for a modern yet specifically Indian sensibility</em></p> Snehal P. Sanathanan Vinod Balakrishnan Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 91 109 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.571 Overcoming awkwardness <p><em>As Chinese people engaged with the Australian cultural scene in recent years, two posts about its humour attracted considerable attention from netizens in the People’s Republic of China. The post authors believed that their firsthand accounts of events demonstrated how Australians used humour to overcome awkward situations and regarded this as an essential national characteristic. In each case, other interpretations were possible if cultural factors had been taken into account, including the contemporary culture of China, Putonghua language usage and the Anglo-centrism that is common to cross-cultural studies. This exploratory generalist textual study concludes that the authors’ interpretations were largely determined by their cultural bias and by traditional regard for ‘face’ and politeness, and reflect the fact that, ultimately, the extent of cross-cultural communication is governed by international politics.</em></p> Jocelyn Valerie Chey Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 131 151 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.560 Dame Edna and ‘the help’ <p><em>‘Dame Edna Everage’, a persona originally created by the Australian comedian Barry Humphries in 1955, is a character designed to simultaneously shock and amuse. Dame Edna voices (and satirizes) the discourse of ‘average’, older, politically conservative Anglo-Australians who feel compelled to ‘tell it like it is’ – no matter how offensive their opinions might be. In the Anglosphere, Edna’s humour is well understood and sustained international success has followed Edna for more than 60 years in Britain, Canada, the US and Australia. However, Edna occasionally misfires. In 2003, for instance, Edna’s satire outraged Latinos across the USA, in fulfillment of Poe’s Law (Aikin, 2009). Simply put, Latinos assumed that Edna’s comments satirising negative mainstream attitudes towards them were expressive of Edna’s authentic racism. </em></p> <p><em>This paper investigates the Edna joke in the overall context of failed humour and then specifically for the offensiveness it generated amongst the Latino minority in the United States. It then tests whether this reaction was the result of a discursive frame specific to the US context, by conducting an exploratory study amongst a small sample of highly educated Australian bilingual Latin American immigrants and their adult children, to see whether they thought Edna’s joke was funny. These Australian individuals of Latin American heritage responded via an online questionnaire, and an analysis of their responses is presented here. The study’s main finding is that while these individuals generally demonstrated a high comedic literacy across both English and Spanish, including a prior awareness of Edna’s and Australian humour, they overall rejected the intention and humour of Edna’s joke. This paper asserts that, when it comes to humour, some transnational migrant speech community loyalties transcend other notions of identity and language competence. </em></p> Adrian Hale Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 152 172 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.568 Origins of Bosnian humor and its role during the siege of Sarajevo <p><em>This article presents an ethnographic study of Bosnian humour during the siege of Sarajevo. The siege of Sarajevo, which followed the collapse of Yugoslavia, lasted four years. Despite the atrocities and war crimes committed against the residents of Sarajevo during this period, they are known for the spirit they demonstrated, and humour was a crucial element of this spirit. On the basis of two-month fieldwork in Sarajevo, I demonstrate how Bosnians employed humour to comment on this traumatic event, made sense of it, and coped with the experience. Although humour under extreme conditions is mainly viewed as a coping mechanism, by exploring the origins of Bosnian humour and stereotypes about Bosnians, I demonstrate that a notable humorous response to the traumatic events of the 1990s was more than a coping mechanism or just a response to this particular war. As I argue, a humorous attitude toward life in Bosnia belongs to people’s identity; it has developed historically as a response to the sufferings of a peripheral group in the region and, as a result, has become a cultural artifact belonging to Bosnians’ ethnic consciousness. In their attempt to preserve a sense of normalcy and restore dignity during the siege, Sarajevans continued to engage in their traditional humour, as doing otherwise would mean they had lost control over who they were.</em></p> David Orlov Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 4 173 188 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.522 Presenting and perceiving humour in Estonian tourism settings <p><em>Humour plays a significant role in everyday interactions. Individuals perceive humour differently and experience various emotions, from exaltation to umbrage. Therefore, providing humorous communication in customer service is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of humour in a tourism customer service context. In the first part of the study, representatives of Estonian tourism companies were asked their opinions about using humour in communication with their clients. They provided examples of the use of humour in customer service situations, which were then evaluated by potential tourists in the second part of the study. The results of the evaluation were analysed in relation to the respondents’ sense of humour. The findings were discussed in line with the four implicatures of humour.</em></p> Marit Piirman Katrin Saks Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 189 208 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.580 Multilingual humour in audiovisual translation <p><em>This commentary aims to take up the gauntlet thrown down by Dore (2019) with her article about multilingual humour in the Italian dubbed version of the series </em>Modern Family<em>. She suggested that the scenes included in the article could be analysed in other languages, so it was an interesting proposal to carry out the analysis of the Spanish dubbed version, since the L2 in the source text coincides with the target text language. Thus, this fact makes the translation process an arduous activity in these language combinations. Multilingualism is therefore considered the central element in this study. It is a reflection of the current social movement and the increase of multi-ethnic communities worldwide. This fact leads to citizens who use their knowledge to assert their own identity; as a consequence, audiovisual producers are also aware of this situation and exploit this phenomenon. </em>Modern Family<em> is an example of this reality and introduces characters, like Gloria Delgado-Pritchett, as a role model to show an increasingly common tendency, the use of multilingual and multi-ethnic characters that reflect this new social situation. Thanks to the selected examples, we will see whether the use of multilingualism as a source of humour is also transmitted to the Spanish dubbed version, as it did in the Italian dubbed version studied by the abovementioned scholar.</em></p> Noelia Marqués Cobeta Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 209 220 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.570 Exploring teacher-initiated humour in Academic English classes <p><em>As a subject focused on teaching grammar forms needed for academic studies and genres of academic writing, Academic English</em> <em>may seem tedious at times. Sometimes it is a complex subject for students who are fresh to academia and it needs a peculiar didactic approach to provide a smooth transition of students from general to academic English writing at a university level. One of these approaches may be using humour during classes. The current research explores teacher-initiated humour in Academic English classes at the Westminster International University in Tashkent and its effects on students. Besides, it seeks answers to questions as to what types of humour teachers employ during the class mostly, how often they use humour, as well as students’ and teachers’ recommendations given on how to use humour in class. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative data extraction methods in the form</em> <em>of an online questionnaire with students and a semi-structured interview with teachers. Obtained results show that affective and social roles of humour, its quality of lessening anxiety, creates</em> <em>favourable conditions for students and teacher’s connectedness, which outweighs other humour’s roles. Besides, mnemonic and engaging roles of humour received solid support by the respondents. To obtain a more positive effect, it is recommended that teachers, when incorporating humour in class, apply a systematic approach. Humour should be planned beforehand and needs to be appropriate. Moreover, it should be used with moderation.</em></p> Aziz Kholmatov Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 221 235 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.556 Humour-integrated language learning (HILL) in perspective, progress and prospect <p><em>This research note brings readers’ attention to an extensive, ongoing research project named Humour-Integrated Language Learning (HILL). The project investigates HILL as an innovative approach to language education and humour literacy. Within the limits of this short article, HILL is initially conceptualised, and then, an outline of the project is provided. Then, I describe ongoing lines of the research, giving a snapshot of the preliminary results. Finally, future directions of the HILL project are elaborated on.</em></p> Mohammad Ali Heidari-Shahreza Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 236 245 10.7592/EJHR2021.9.4.557 Book review: Tabacaru, Sabina. (2019). A Multimodal Study of Sarcasm in Interactional Humour. Berlin: De Gruyter <p><em>Book review</em></p> Xuan Li Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 246 249 Book review: Rucynski, John. Jr. & Prichard, Caleb. (eds.). (2020). Bridging the Humour Barrier: Humour Competency Training in English Language Teaching. Lanham: Lexington Books <p><em>Book review</em></p> Villy Tsakona Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 250 257 Book review: Amir, Lydia. (2019). Philosophy, Humour, and the Human Condition: Taking Ridicule Seriously. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan <p><em>Book review</em></p> Mark Weeks Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 258 261 Book review: Litovkina, Anna T. & Wolfgang Mieder. (2019). Marriage Seen through Proverbs and Anti-Proverbs. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. <p><em>Book review</em></p> Joanna Szerszunowicz Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 262 267 Book review: Tsakona, Villy. (2020). Recontextualising Humour. Rethinking the Analysis and Teaching of Humor. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton <p class="Default"><em>Book review</em></p> Salvatore Attardo Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 4 268 271