AbstractThis research examines the extent to which the integration of humorous literary texts in teaching the Arabic language affects achievement in reading comprehension among Grade 4 pupils in the Arab sector in Israel. This research is the first one in the field. Research on the integration of humour in the study of Arabic language as first language does not exist so far. There are very few studies dealing with the integration of humour in the learning process of Arabic as a second language (only three were found). Hence, there are no studies dealing with the integration of humour in the educational field in the Israeli Arab sector. The research took place in one school in the Bedouin sector in the South of Israel. It was based on one experimental class and one control class The study examined the level of the pupils’ knowledge in all components of comprehension: explicit and implicit content, interpretation and integration, evaluating texts and drawing conclusions. The experimental classes studied six humorous stories whereas the control classes studied six stories without humour. The results of the experiment show that the achievements of pupils who learned comprehension using humorous stories was much higher than those in the control classes. In addition, a more positive learning environment was reported in the experimental classes.
Al-Duleimi A., Deygan D. & Aziz R. N. (2016). ‘Humour as EFL learning-teaching strategy’. Journal of Education and Practice 7(10), pp. 105-115.
Ali S. S., Iqbal M., Ali A., Uddin, R. & Rahman, G. (2015). ‘Appropriate use of humour in English language teaching: A case study of KUST (Kohat University of Science and Technology), Kohat’. Abasyn University Journal of Social Sciences 8(1), pp. 127-142.
Arabic Language Education for Grades 1-6 Curriculum (2009). Israeli Ministry of Education & Culture, Jerusalem.
Azizifard, F. & Jalali S. (2012). ‘Context and humour in teaching language functions’. Theory & Practice in Language Studies 2(6), pp. 1191-1198.
Bell, Nancy. (2009). ‘Learning about and through humour in the second language classroom’. Language Teaching Research 13(3), pp. 241-258.
Bell, N. & Pomerantz A. (2016). Humour in the Classroom: A Guide for Language Teachers and Educational Researchers. New York: Routledge.
Bell, N. & Pomerantz A. (2014). ‘Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humour’. Euro American E-Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages 1(1), pp. 31-47.
Berk, R. A. & Nanda, J. (2006). ‘A randomised trial of humour effects on test anxiety and test performance’. Humour: International Journal of Humour Research 19(4), pp. 425-454.
Berk, R.A. & Nanda, J.P. (1998). ‘Effects of jocular instructional methods on attitudes, anxiety and achievements in statistics courses. Humour: International Journal of Humour Research 11(4), pp. 383-409.
Bryant, J., Comisky, P.W., Crane, J.S. & Zillmann, D. (1980). ‘Relationship between college teachers’ use of humour in the classroom and pupils’ evaluation of their teachers’. Journal of Educational Psychology 72(4), pp. 511-519.
Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (1989). ‘Using humour to promote learning in the classroom’. in McGhee, P.E. (ed.). Humour and Children’s Development: A Guide to Practical Applications. New York: Haworth Press. pp. 49-78.
Cohen, A. (1996). The Book of Quotations. Kineret Press. [Hebrew].
Chabeli, M. (2008). ‘Humour: A pedagogical tool to promote learning’. Curationis 31(3), pp. 51-59.
Davies, A. P. & Apter, M. J. (1980). ‘Humour and its effect on learning in children’, in McGhee, P.E. & Chapman, A. J. (eds.). Children’s Humour. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Derks, P., Gardner, J.B. & Agrawal, R. (1998). ‘Recall of innocent and tendentious humorous material’. Humour: International Journal of Humour Research 11(1), pp. 5-19.
Ford, T.E., Ford, B.L., Boxer, C.F. & Armstrong, J. (2012). ‘Effect of humour on state anxiety and math performance’. Humour: International Journal of Humour Research 25(1), pp. 59-74
Fortson, S.B. & Brown, W.E. (1998). ‘Best and worst university instructors: The opinions of graduate pupils’. College Pupil Journal 32(4), pp. 572-576.
Fung, Y.M. (2010). ‘Collaborative writing features’. RELC Journal 41(1), pp. 18–30.
Freud, S. (1976) . Le Mot d’Esprit et ses Rapports avec l’Inconscient. Paris: Gallimard.
Garner, R. L. (2006). ‘Humour in pedagogy: How ha-ha can lead to aha’. College Teaching 54(1), pp. 177-180.
Gazit, A. (2013). ‘Pre-service mathematics teachers’ attitude towards integrating humour in math lessons’. Israeli Journal of Humour Research 3, pp. 27-44.
Glenn, R. (2002). ‘Brain research: Practical applications for the classroom’. Teaching for Excellence 21(6), pp. 1-2.
Gorham, J. & Christophel, D.M. (1990). ‘The relationship teachers’ use of humour in the classroom of immediacy and pupil learning’. Communication Education 39(1), pp. 46-62.
Gorham, J. (1988). ‘The relationship between verbal teacher immediacy behaviours and pupil learning’. Communication Education 37(1), pp. 40-53.
Gruner, C.R. (1976). ‘Wit and humour in mass communication’. in Chapman. A.J. & Foot, H.C. (eds.). Humour and Laughter: Theory Research and Applications. London: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 287-311.
Hempelmann, F. C. (2016). ‘Humour in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach’. Euro-American Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages 3(2), pp. 42-55.
Herzog, T. R. & Strevey, S.J. (2008). ‘Contact with nature, sense of humour and psychology well-being’. Environment and Behaviour 40(6), pp. 747-776.
Hillman, S.K. (2011). “Ma Sha Allah!” Creating Community through Humour Practices in a Diverse Arabic Language Flagship Classroom. ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 201 pp.
Kelley, D.H. & Gorham, J. (1988). ‘Effect on immediacy recall of information’. Communication Education 37(3), pp. 198-207.
Kuperman, A. (2006). ‘The use of humour in the teaching of mathematics’. Mispar Hazak – Magazine for math teaching at elementary school. Haifa University 11, pp. 14-20. [Hebrew].
Kuipers, G. (2006). Good Humour, Bad Taste: A Sociology of the Joke. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.
Janes, L.M. & Olson, J.M. (2000). ‘Jeer pressures: The behavioural effects of observing ridicule of others’. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26(4), pp. 474-485.
Loomis, D. & Kolberg, K. (1993). The Laughing Classroom: Everyone’s Guide to Teaching with Humour and Play. Tiburon, (CA): H.J. Kramer.
Martin, R. (2007). The Psychology of Humour: An Integrative Approach. San Francisco: Elsevier.
Masselos, G. (2003). ‘When I play funny it makes me laugh: Implications of early childhood educators in developing humour through play’. in Lytle, D.F. (ed.). Play and Educational Theory and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing. pp. 213-226.
McGee, E. & Shevlin, M. (2009). ‘Effect of humour on interpersonal attraction and mate selection’. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 143(1), pp. 67-77.
McMahon, M. (1999). ‘Are we having fun yet? Humour in the English class’, The English Journal 88(4), pp. 47-52.
Minchew, S. S. (2001). ‘Teaching English with humour and fun’, American Secondary Education 30(11), pp. 58-70.
Mohan R.S. (2016). ‘Role of humour in second language teaching and acquisition’, Language in India 16(4), pp. 27-33.
Morreall, J. (2008). ‘Health, the workplace and education’. in Raskin, V. (ed.). The Primer of Humour Research. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 449-478.
Neuliep, J. W. (1991). ‘An examination of the content of high school teachers’ humour in the classroom and the development of an inductively derived taxonomy of classroom humour’. Communication Education 40(4), pp. 343-355.
Oppliger, P.A. (2003). ‘Humour and learning’. in Bryant, J., Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. & Cantor, J.R. (eds.), Communication and Emotion: Essays of Dolf Zillmann. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, pp. 255-273.
Petitjean, C. & González-Martínez, E. (2015). ‘Laughing and smiling to manage trouble in French-language classroom interaction’. Classroom Discourse 6(2), pp. 89-106.
Platt, T. & Ruch, W. (2009). ‘The emotions of gelotophobes: Shameful, fearful and joyless?’, Humour: International Journal of Humour Research 22(1-2), pp. 91-110.
Prodanović-Stankić, D. (2011). ‘Using humour in teaching English as a foreign language at more advanced levels. Zbornik Instituta za Pedagoška Istraživanja (Institute for Educational Research, Belgrade) 43(2), pp. 254-265.
Schmidt, S.R. (2002). ‘The humour effect: Differential processing and privileged retrieval’. Memory 10(2), pp. 127-138.
Schmidt, S.R. & Williams, A.R. (2001). ‘Memory for humorous cartoons’. Memory & Cognition 29(2), pp. 305-311.
Sover, A. (2009). Humour: The Pathway to Human Laughter. Jerusalem: Carmel [in Hebrew].
Stopsky, F. (1992). Humour in the Classroom: A New Approach to Critical Thinking. Lowell, MA: Discovery Enterprises.
Torok, S. E., McMorris, R.F. & Wen-Chi L. (2004). ‘Is humour an appreciated teaching tool?’, College Teaching 52(1), pp. 14-20.
Wanzer, M., Frymier, A., Wojtaszczyk, A., & Smith, T. (2006). ‘Appropriate and inappropriate uses of humour by teachers. Communication Education 55(2), pp. 178-196.
Ziegler, V., Boardman, G. & Thomas, M.D. (1985). ‘Humour, leadership and school climate’. Clearing House 58, pp. 346-348.